ecent developments in genomics are advancing our understanding of the processes shaping population structure in wild organisms. In particular, reduced representation sequencing has facilitated the generation of dense genetic marker datasets that provide greater power for resolving population structure, investigating the role of selection and reconstructing demographic histories. We therefore used RAD sequencing to study the great scallop Pecten maximus and its sister species P. jacobeus along a latitudinal cline in Europe. Analysis of 219 samples genotyped at 82,439 single nucleotide polymorphisms clearly resolved an Atlantic and a Norwegian group within P. maximus as well as P. jacobeus, in support of previous studies. Fine-scale structure was also detected, including pronounced differences involving Mulroy Bay in Ireland, where scallops are commercially cultured. Furthermore, we identified a suite of 279 environmentally associated loci that resolved a contrasting phylogenetic pattern to the remaining neutral loci, consistent with ecologically mediated divergence. Finally, demographic inference provided support for the two P. maximus groups having diverged during the last glacial maximum and subsequently expanded, whereas P. jacobeus diverged around 95,000 generations ago and experienced less pronounced expansion. Our results provide an integrative perspective on the factors shaping genome-wide differentiation in a commercially important marine invertebrate.
Children driving and riding three- and four-wheeled vehicles is commonplace in many rural Georgia counties. Unfortunately, what may seem like innocent fun can lead to serious injuries and even death. One Georgia 4-H agent is taking a stand to educate children and parents in her county, hopefully saving lives in the process.As the University of Georgia 4-H agent in Tattnall County, Lesli Garrett educates children every day on leadership, citizenship, self-esteem and a host of other youth development topics. Adding all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety to her list of classes was a personal choice. “Every summer I see kids riding around on four-wheelers and going mud bogging on them. It’s just part of living in the country,” said Garrett, who owns a four-wheeler and is the mother of three small children. “But we’ve had several deaths in our county from ATV accidents. My own son told me he once rolled our four-wheeler over but jumped off before he was hurt.” This led Garrett to seek certification training to teach ATV safety to children and adults in her county. She began the training while working as an assistant to Toombs County 4-H agent Cheryl Poppell, also a certified instructor. “Parents need to know that ATV safety equipment, like helmets, is not one size fits all,” said Poppell, who began teaching ATV safety in her county in 2009. “I’ve seen children driving ATVs while wearing flip flops and not wearing a helmet.” The Georgia 4-H agents were trained through Oklahoma State University Extension’s 4-H ATV safety program and the ATV Safety Institute. The institute’s golden rules of safety are as follows:Always wear a Department of Transportation-compliant helmet, goggles, long sleeves, long pants, over-the-ankle boots and gloves.Never ride on paved roads except to cross, when done safely and permitted by law. Another vehicle could hit you. ATVs are designed to operate off-highway.Never ride under the influence of alcohol or drugs.Never carry a passenger on a single-rider ATV and no more than one passenger on an ATV specifically designed for two people.Ride an ATV that’s right for your age.Supervise riders younger than 16 years. ATVs are not toys.Ride only on designated trails and at a safe speed.Take a hands-on ATV rider course and the free online e-Course at ATVSafety.org.Garrett and Poppell now teach these ATV safety rules at a weeklong summer safety program and in sessions with area middle school students. They use games to make the lessons fun, DVDs of real ATV accidents to make the lessons realistic and let the students try on ATV safety wear to make the lessons experiential. For more information on Georgia 4-H, go to Georgia4H.org. “We cringe when kids drive cars, but we cringe even harder when we see them on ATVs,” Poppell said. “We give (children) the education, the gospel of safe ATV driving, but they have to make the choice to use it.” Former Senior Georgia 4-H’er Nicole Smith, an ATV accident survivor, also helps by giving her personal testimony. “I serve as a guest speaker at Boy and Girl Scout club meetings and anywhere I’m invited,” Garrett said. “I just want to get the word out.”
Â by Tracy McCue, Sumner Newscow â€” The following are a list of criminal court complaints recently filed by the Sumner County Attorney’s office.These are formal charges introduced into the Sumner County District Court system. The suspects listed in the complaint have not been tried by a judge or jury. All citizens are innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢David Jiminez, born in 1962, of Belle Plaine was charged with two counts of indecent liberties with a child, a level 5 felony.According to the complaint, Jiminez is accused of touching a child 14 years or older but less than 16 in a sexual manner on Nov. 22, 2012. He is also accused of a similar incident in 2012. His district court case is continued to Oct. 10.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Jill Moldovan, born in 1971, of Wichita was charged with two counts of possession of marijuana, Class A misdemeanors.Moldavan is accused of possessing a green glass marijuana pipe and the paper surrounding three marijuana cigarettes.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Jason McDade, born in 1970, of Hutchinson was charged with failure to stop for private driveway, a traffic infraction; transportation of open container, a misdemeanor; a second offense of possession of marijuana, a level 5 drug felony; and possession of drug paraphernalia, a Class A misdemeanor.McDade is accused of not coming to a stop and having a half full can of Miller Lite beer, possession of marijuana her second offense, and a marijuana pipe on Aug. 23. His case is continued to Sept. 26.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Nathan Shelton, born in 1990, of Wellington was charged with arson, a level 7 non-person felony; and interference with law enforcement, a level 9 non-person felony.Shelton is accused of putting gasoline on some pants and shirts belonging to a family member and setting them on fire with a lighter in the backyard. The case is continued to Oct. 3.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Jesse Gomez, born in 1985, of Wichita was charged with possession of hallucinogens and possession of drug paraphernalia, both misdemeanors.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Colby Aiken of Derby was charged with DUI his third offense, a felony, which carries a mandatory 90 days in jail an mandatory minimum fine of $1,750; driving while license is suspended, a Class B misdemeanor; failure to provide proof of insurance, a Class B misdemeanor; and failure to maintain one lane, a traffic infraction. â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Rosa Bolyard, born in 1981, of Wellington was charged with failing to appear, a Class B misdemeanor.Bolyard is accused of not showing up for court after a $5,000 bond was posted until May 2 when a hearing on 2010 CR 308 for the probation revocation hearing. She had been convicted for the misdemeanor of possession of marijuana and had been arrested for violating her probation and released on bond.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Jesse Burnett, born in 1991, of Conway Springs was charged with aggravated assault, a level 7 felony; domestic battery, a Class B misdemeanor; and disorderly conduct, a Class C misdemeanor.On Sept. 14, 2013, Burnett is accused of threatening a family member by swinging a sledge hammer at him. Burnett then allegedly hit and wrestled the family member and did so with knowledge that such acts would alarm or disturb others.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Daniel Ramirez, born in 1985, of Mayetta, Kans. was charged with possession of amphetamines, a level 5 drug felony; possession of drug paraphernalia, a Class A misdemeanor; and unlawful use of driver’s license, a class B misdemeanor.Ramirez is accused of on Sept. 14, 2013 of possessing an amphetamine contained in a medical syringe located in his right front pocket of his jeans, and then displaying a driver’s license which is not his own. Ramirez case has been continued to Oct. 3.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢John Ochoa, born in 1983, of Wichita was charged with battery, a Class B misdemeanor.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Tracie Rusk, born in 1968, of Wellington was charged with domestic battery, a class B misdemeanor; disorderly conduct, a Class C misdemeanor; and criminal deprivation of property, a Class A misdemeanor.At 718 E. 70th St. on Aug. 25, Rusk is accused of angrily elbowing and pushing a family member out of his truck so that she might be able to drive away in the truck. She is also accused of angrily yelling at the family member to try to convince him to let her take the truck and then physically pushing him to try to get him out of the pickup which angered him and alarmed their two daughters.On Sept. 8, Rusk is accused of taking a washer and toolbox from a rental house at 709 N. Washington in Wellington with intent of permanently depriving the owner of such property.She also allegedly returned to the residence after being told that she could not evict or remove items from her rental property belonging to a tenant. She came over and knocked over a furniture armoire on the porch causing $400 in damage.The case is continued to Oct. 3.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Larry Tucker, born in 1975, of Wichita was charged with DUI, a felony and his fourth offense; refusal of chemical test, a Class A misdemeanor; driving while suspended, a Class B misdemeanor; and transporting an open container, a misdemeanor; theft, a level 9 felony; and possession of cocaine , a level 5 drug felony.Tucker is accused on Sept. 13, 2013, of operating a Pontiac Grand Am on the turnpike under the influence of alcohol. He allegedly refused to submit to a drug/alcohol test, had a suspended drivers’ license, and aÂ open 24-ounce can of Natural Light Beer.It was then learned that the Pontiac Grand Am was owned by another person and Tucker allegedly had possession of it. Upon search of the car, cocaine was allegedly found.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Austin Christy, born in 1994, of Maize was charged with battery, a Class B misdemeanor; and disorderly conduct, a Class C misdemeanor.Stanley Diedrich IV, born in 1994, of Maize was charged with violation of a protective order, a Class A misdemeanor; battery, a Class B misdemeanor; criminal damage to property, a Class B misdemeanor and disorderly conduct, a Class C misdemeanor.Christy and Diedrich are accused of intentionally causing physical contact to an alleged victim in a rude, angry manner. Diedrich is also accused of damaging a 1999 Lexus LXS passenger car valued at less than $1,000.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Aaron Sandell, born in 1984 of Wellington, was charged with theft by deception, a Class A misdemeanor.Sandell is accused of illegally taking possession of batteries, a case of Dr. Pepper and a refund for stolen paint all valued at $106.23 from Wellington Wal-Mart.Allegedly, Sandell brought a receipt dated Aug. 10 into the store on Aug. 15. He then allegedly took an empty shopping cart to the paint section and put five gallon buckets of paint into his cart. He then got some batteries and went to customer service where a manager was waiting on him. She gave him a $101 gift cart for the paint, but would not refund the batteries since the purchase code did not match.Sandell used the gift card to buy a $3.99 Dr. Pepper case and left the store with the batteries, gift card and Dr. Pepper.â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢Jerry Muller Jr., born in 1979, of Augusta, was charged with burglary of a non-dwelling, a level 7 felony; theft, a level 9 felony of items valued above $1,000, criminal damage to property, a Class B misdemeanor; and attempted theft, a Class B misdemeanor.Muller Jr. was also charged with two counts of burglary of a dwelling, a level 7 felony; and two counts of theft, Class A misdemeanors for items valued under $1,000.Muller Jr. is accused on Sept. 17 of entering into a building owned by Horton Inc. located at 421 NW Road in Wellington. He allegedly took $1,000 cash money, a Dell laptop, tools, and four gold in color U.S. dollar coins. HeÂ then damaged a 1983 Jeep passenger vehicle valued less than $1,000 by tampering with the ignition but failing to get the Jeep started.Muller Jr. also allegedly entered into two residential homes located in the 600 block of North Washington where he stole a black Onyx ring valued at $400, and a neckless and watch valued less than $1,000.