Required Reading Talks Continue

first_imgAt Rumson-Fair Haven Regional High School, Books Criticized and Defended But No One Wants Book BanBy Muriel J. SmithRUMSON – After nearly three hours of comments, conclusions, expressions, and a few questions Board of Education President Lisa Waters referred the question of the controversial required reading list of books for junior and seniors at Rumson Fair Haven High school to the education committee and promised “this isn’t over, we’ll continue to talk.”At issue are whether “Cal,” by Bernard MacLaverty, and “Death and the Maiden” by Ariel Dorfman should be required reading for students in junior and senior English classes, over the objections of parents who find them too sexually charged, too deviant and too mature for teenagers. The matter was brought to the board by a petition circulated by parent Siobhan Hogan and her husband, and signed by more than 300 parents who called not for banning of the books but for more leeway in determining why they had to be required reading for all students and asking for alternatives if requested.Because of the anticipated turnout for the meeting scheduled in the auditorium rather than the library and, following the board’s written policy for meeting procedures, parents had the option of notifying the board in advance they wanted to speak at the first of two regularly held public sessions.Board policy limits the first session to 30 minutes, however, because of the interest and large attendance, the board unanimously agreed to alter the policy to allow that portion to remain open as long as necessary.With an estimated 200 parents, teachers, interested citizens and numerous students in attendance, the first public session got under way after three students were recognized for scholastic achievements, ten teachers were recognized for attaining tenure and a scheduled two minute video and program explaining the school’s Mindfulness program was presented by the program’s committee.Even a sudden blackout and loss of electricity while the third of several dozen speakers was at the podium did not disrupt the meeting.Opinions expressed during the sessions ranged from defending the books as presenting real life to students in a safe, unbiased setting and with explanations of difficult situations in the hands of professional teachers trained to deal with situations to concerns that parental rights to introduce their children to specific situations at their own speed and in their own way were being taken from them.Elise Lawless, mother of three sons, two of whom are at RFH and one in grammar school, asked for a change in the RFH student handbook if the books continue to be required. She noted that if students used the language they are forced to read for the class, or put the rape and sexual situations they are forced to read online or in a casual discussion, they would face discipline measures. She further questioned why the books have been on the reading list for so many years, and urged the board to realize “the curriculum needs to change with the times” and “there are loopholes” in the handbook standards.Hogan reiterated neither she nor any of the petition signers is calling to ban the books, but rather alternative selections for children whose parents do not think they are ready or object to the contents. She further noted that in addition to the more than 300 signatures, there were many more parents who object to the reading, but are fearful of retaliation on their children by faculty through a lack of scholastic recommendations, selection on sports teams or other action by faculty with opposing views.At the second public portion, Hogan conceded she agreed with some opinions expressed, but pleaded with the board to listen to the parents who are “begging for a choice.”One parent counted the number of offensive words and the number of times they were used; another, who was a PTA president in the 1970s, urged concerned parents not to get excited, another called for a balance, while another called for “a middle ground.”Dr. Tracy Handerhan, the mother of two, one a student at RFH, who has also been the RFH principal since 2007, gained both applause and mild criticism when she read a prepared statement in defense of the reading program.She also read excerpts from letters she received from numerous alumni from more than 30 years ago through 2015, conceding most were from graduates now in their 20s. The excerpts, the principal continued, show RFH graduates “prepared to tackle complex works and engage in scholarly dialogue.” And both their comments and the fact they have taken the time to respond to their high school’s current situation have left her proud, yet humbled.“We could easily find other works that illustrate theme, allegory, plot, mood, tone, etc.,” the principal said. “However, our English Program at RFH transcends literary devices, vocabulary, and grammatical structures… to prepare our students for a global society, it is incumbent… to provide students with a deep understanding of the political complexities of our modern world. Despite the state requirement of a World History course, I believe the state required core curriculum for Social Studies is inherently ethnocentric… Through readings and book selections within our humanities courses we begin to hone a more balanced perspective.”Pointing to the fact both books depict “political oppression,” is a universal theme pervasive in our modern world, she said. It is impossible to watch the evening news without an oppressive headline.” Handerhan cited specific illustrations within both books which she feels strongly make them an important part of the curriculum, and explained her contention that “we are morally obligated to present complex works that are attainable and speak to the human condition. The removal of ‘Cal’ and ‘Death and the Maiden’ would substantially hinder our school’s efforts in attaining our community-crafted mission of “empowering students to realize their personal potential and fulfill their responsibilities as members of a moral democracy.”While she was applauded, the principal was also taken to task by the parent who pointed out since the statement was written and prepared before the meeting, it was indicative that “no matter what we say, there will be no changes. It’s mindboggling.”But it was English department chair Jack Shea, the teacher who has been in the RFH system for many years, who gained the most attention when he read from his own prepared statement in defense of the curriculum and his faith in it and his staff in the English and Social Studies Department.He described the process used in selecting reading materials, citing that first a need is identified, either to replace an existing work, or to augment works currently studied in that course raise the bar. The need is discussed by himself and the instructional team and if agreed upon, potential literary texts are identified and a shared reading/review process is started. Works are selected by their literary and artistic excellence, educational value, and potential to support the established curriculum and the educational goals of the school. Consideration is given to timeliness of issues explored, contributions to multicultural awareness and diversity, and the text’s potential to enhance the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students. Research determines if the work has received favorable reviews from national organizations and appears in the curriculums of other competitive high schools; college board standards are considered along with the grade and maturity levels of the students reading the text.Shea noted that Shakespeare has been viewed as a controversial playwright in some quarters, and he cited this school district’s not only defense but inclusion of Moisés Kauffman’s The Laramie Project, in the curriculum in another recent activity.That play, which focuses on the murder of a gay student at the University of Wyoming, was blocked by another County high school principal because of explicit themes and strong language which that principal felt had the potential to cause undue disturbance for the school and the community. Shea and Handerhan discussed the ban and the response it generated at all levels, proposed it, along with their reasons for supporting it to the Education Committee and confirmed their own professional capacity to carefully guide students through material that might be disturbing to some. The Education Committee agreed with the rationale and approved the curriculum.In a similar way, the two books currently being cited, Shea continued, “discuss truth of the human world, and “what better way to discuss it but in the classroom with well-trained, well-educated, sensitive teachers…?”Both books star ted as summer reading selections in their longstanding histories at RFH, he continued, and the fact they are now established, common texts across grade levels “speaks to the merit of these literary works.”Related Story, Oct. 10: RFH Parents Challenge Required Reading as Appropriatelast_img read more

49ers vs. Bears: Three battles to watch in home finale

first_imgSANTA CLARA – Season Five at Levi’s Stadium closes Sunday for the 49ers, and, per annual routine, no playoff berth awaits them.So, the spoiler role it is.After beating playoff contenders Denver and Seattle the previous two Sundays at home, the 49ers (4-10) now host NFC North-champion Chicago Bears (10-4).CHICAGO, IL – DECEMBER 03: Trent Taylor #81 of the San Francisco 49ers completes the pass for a first down in the third quarter against the Chicago Bears at Soldier Field on December 3, 2017 …last_img

Nature Recommends Trimming the Bible

first_imgPeople act violently when they think God sanctions violence, thinks Brad Bushman, a social psychologist from U. of Michigan. Heidi Ledford wrote in Nature1 that he and others like Hector Avalos (Iowa State) propose editing Scripture. “Avalos has proposed a radical solution to theologically inspired violence � cut the violent passages out of the scripture.” He says this is not a “wildly controversial idea” because churches are already selective about what they preach.1Heidi Ledford, “Scriptural violence can foster aggression,” Nature 446, 114-115 (8 March 2007) | doi:10.1038/446114b.What business is this of Nature? Clean your own house, Darwinians. Thou shalt not alter a word of Scripture till thou purge Darwin’s writings of the racism that led to the largest and most pernicious genocides of all time.* Purge, also, the writings of his cousin Galton on eugenics, and the writings of all the other Darwin disciples who saw violence as a good thing – the agent of evolutionary progress. 148 million people perished in the last 100 years due to Darwin-inspired regimes. Multiple millions more who survived suffered other forms of violence, torture and deprivation. When you are done with that little exercise, then purge the Quran of its violent passages. How convenient to attack the Scriptures of Christians who believe in praying for one’s enemies, while ignoring the 1.5 billion people subscribing to a “religion of peace” that believes in blowing up buses and shopping malls in the name of the moon god so that brainwashed young men can fulfill their fantasies of eternal sex. Then, Darwin Party, write a term paper on the hospitals and charities and improvements to education and government founded by Christians. These are prerequisites before starting any conversation about the interpretation of the violent passages in Scripture, which have been duly discussed in context by Jewish and Christian theologians for millennia. OK, atheists, got any virtues you would like to brag about? Besides hypocrisy, that is. How about a little altruism? (01/21/2006, 03/16/2005).(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

R1.6bn upgrade for Koeberg

first_imgFrench power company Alstom has secured a contract worth approximately €125-million (about R1.6-billion) from South African state company Eskom to upgrade the Koeberg nuclear power station outside Cape Town. 16 March 2009 Eskom began construction on the Kusile coal-fired base load power station near Witbank in Mpumalanga province in September last year, while work on the Medupi coal-fired base load power station, near Lephalale in Limpopo province, began in April. “We are pleased to have this opportunity to further build on our relationship with Eskom through the supply of the retrofit for their two steam turbines,” Alstom’s Guy Chardon said in a statement this week. The work will involve retro-fitting the low-pressure turbines of the two 970 MWe units at South Africa’s sole nuclear power plant, increasing the station’s output by over 65 MW, improving availability and reliability, and extending the lifetime of the plant. The retrofits will be carried out during planned refuelling outages, thus reducing the chance of interruption to generation from the station. “We believe nuclear energy offers a carbon-free, efficient, viable alternative for meeting increasing demand for energy.” Increasing capacity The utility also recently placed orders for new equipment contracts with Alstom for the Medupi and Kusile coal-fired power plants, producing 4 800 MW each. Eskom and Alstom have worked together on previous projects such as the retrofitting of the Arnot power plant, an integrated retrofit project providing a capacity increase to that station of more than 300 MW. The first of Medupi’s six generating units will be commissioned by early 2011, with the last unit scheduled for commissioning by January 2015. The first of Kusile’s six generating units is scheduled for completion by 2013, followed by the completion on an additional unit after every eight months. SAinfo reporter Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo materiallast_img read more

Cup visitors enchanted by South Africa

first_img17 June 2010The world’s attention is focused on the southern tip of Africa as the greatest football showpiece plays itself out on the fields and in the streets of South Africa. But once the final whistle has blown on 11 July, it seems as though a lot of happy fans will be coming back to the country.They’re interested in the diverse holiday opportunities offered by game parks, beaches, and the different sights and sounds of South Africa.As both Spain and Switzerland opened their World Cup accounts at Durban’s Moses Mabhida Stadium on Wednesday afternoon, with Switzerland grabbing a surprise win, the fans from both camps had been soaking up more than just the football extravaganza.‘Durban is perfect for me’Raul Spreafico is in town to support Spain. It is his first visit to any country in Africa, and he is very excited to be in Durban. He enjoys travelling the world – and says that being in Africa is one of his highlights.“I’m not much of an extremist,” says Spreafico. “I enjoy the calm and serenity of nature, so Durban is perfect for me.”Pontius Meier, clad in an all-red outfit in support of his Swiss team, says Durban “is the place to be right now … For the past week I was staying at African Sunrise Lodge, and I enjoyed the phuthu breakfast and home-grown fruits. Tomorrow we are going to scuba dive at Ushaka Marine World Aquarium.”Pontius’s friend James said: “It is my second time in South Africa, but I have never been to Durban before. The beach is marvelous, and it reminds me of the Spanish Riviera.”Kruger National ParkDespite being in awe of the impressive arch that spans across the Durban stadium, it seems some of the Swiss fans have found their new favourite destination further north – toward the renowned Kruger National Park and the famous “Big Five” of lion, buffalo, leopard, elephant and rhino.“The first thing we did was visit the Kruger National Park,” said Swiss brothers Ferdinand, Marcus and Rowan Kirsten. “We heard so much about it and we wanted to see for ourselves.”For Stephane, a travelling fan from Switzerland, it was “incredible to be surrounded by wild animals, even though I didn’t get to see the lion, but other than that the people have been friendly.”Others plan to head to the mountains, as well as to the country’s pristine beaches.Coastal areas“We came from Johannesburg and spent two nights in the Drakensberg Mountains, and from here we hope to see the coastal areas of the country, especially Cape Town and Port Elizabeth,” said Mikel Goldacena from Spain.For some of the visiting fans, this is not their first trip to South Africa.“I used to work for a construction company back in 1974 and came to work in South Africa. I am amazed by the transformation since then,” said Berner Roland from Switzerland.“South Africa has done well for itself with this World Cup. I am proud to see so much change,” added Roland, who said he will “definitely be back here in South Africa soon”.Source: 2010 Fifa World Cup South Africa Organising Committeelast_img read more

Work begins as Ravena inks max rookie deal with NLEX

first_imgTrending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Standhardinger: I don’t want Rookie of the Year award Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 .@kieferravena: It’s nice to have my first game in an @nlexpba jersey. #PBA2018— Randolph B. Leongson (@RLeongsonINQ) November 9, 2017 But Ravena doesn’t mind the early grind with NLEX, which came back to work early in the offseason with more than a month to go before the opening.“I really wanted to come in early to make up for lost time and to make my transition a bit faster and smoother when the real practice time comes. So I’ve already learned a lot here, from the guys who I’ve been with or faced one way or another,” he said.READ: Rookie Ravena hopes to bring leadership at NLEXSeen as the most PBA-ready of the class, Ravena shared that his exposure to the culture of the pros all his life has prepared him for his moment, giving him a slight edge among the pack.ADVERTISEMENT “I’ve been around the PBA for almost all my life because of my dad, so I know how it goes,” he said.The idea, however, is still different from execution, and Ravena is hopeful he could get a seamless transition“Hopefully, the transition would be smooth. I know it’s a matter of maturity because in college, you get away with a lot of things. You play with younger guys if you’re the senior. But here, you play against much bigger, stronger, older and more intelligent guys with a lot of experience. So you have to counter that with a lot of things to be able to be efficient with your game,” he said. CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohortcenter_img Kiefer Ravena. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netSigning a maximum rookie deal worth P8.5 million on Thursday, Kiefer Ravena couldn’t be more elated to formally join the NLEX family.“I’m very happy to be in a franchise where it wasn’t really hard to negotiate. More than the contract, it’s the honor to play for a franchise like NLEX,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT Read Next MOST READ View comments Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding READ: Guiao hails Ravena-Alas backcourt as NLEX’s futureAnd the work starts now for the second overall pick in the 2017 PBA Rookie Draft as he will have to prove his hype in this new chapter with the Road Warriors.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout LATEST STORIES Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillionlast_img read more

Photo: Nebraska Students Wearing Protective Goggles To Mock Notorious Iowa Eye Poker Adam Woodbury

first_imgNebraska students wear goggles to mock Adam Woodbury.Don’t even think about poking the Nebraska men’s basketball student section in the eye today, Adam Woodbury. The Huskers have come prepared. In an obvious attempt to mock the Iowa big man, a notorious eye gouger, three Nebraska students are sporting protective eye goggles for the Huskers’ game against the Hawkeyes this afternoon. Check it out: Students in the @HuskerRedZone wearing protective goggles today, just in case Adam Woodbury gets too close.— Robin Washut (@RobinWashut) February 22, 2015That’s just fantastic. Nebraska (13-13, 5-9 Big Ten) and Iowa (16-10, 7-6 Big Ten) are set to tip off at 3 p.m. E.T. The Huskers will be wearing special throwback uniforms for Legends Weekend.last_img

Jampro takes Agricultural Information Forum to Mobay

first_img The Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO) will be heading west for the second staging of the Agricultural Information Forum, aimed at promoting investments in that sector.The event will be held on July 10 at the Iberostar Beach & Spa Resort in Montego Bay, St. James, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m, and will target persons who have an interest in the agricultural industry.Speaking with JIS News, Manager for Agribusiness at JAMPRO, Marlene Porter, noted that the forum will engage persons operating in the sector, companies that are looking for investment prospects, or persons who have land and capital and are seeking areas in the sector where they can invest.“Our objective is to highlight and promote the investment opportunities that are available in the agribusiness sector and allow persons to understand the benefits and support systems that they can access through the various agencies of Government,” she said.She added that the forum will facilitate discussions on new technologies and farming methods that continue to emerge in the sector and will help companies and investors to become more competitive.There will be presentations from Government agencies and private-sector partners who are integral to the development of the agricultural sector.Key participating entities are the Agro-Investment Corporation (AIC), which will provide information about the various programmes being undertaken such as the agro parks; Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) will highlight the technical and marketing support being provided to farmers and the incentives available; and the Tourism Linkages Network will show how agriculture can respond to the demands of manufacturing, tourism and other related sectors.“We want to highlight the linkage opportunities as a lot has been done in this area to encourage buyers, particularly in the hospitality sector, to begin to purchase locally manufactured and locally grown products,” Mrs. Porter said.The Development Bank of Jamaica, National People’s Co-operative Bank of Jamaica and other financial institutions will provide information about the financing of agribusiness ventures and general financial support available to investors.Mrs. Porter said that JAMPRO will be sharing information on its efforts in promoting exports and the investment opportunities available in the local and international marketplace.“We anticipate that the information that will be shared will help companies and persons to move ahead with the plans they have for the sector…we strongly believe that agriculture is a good sector to be in at this time as it has the potential to transform the Jamaican economy and we want to share these opportunities and see the growth taking place in the sector,” she added.Commenting on the recently held Jamaica Investment Forum (JIF), Mrs. Porter noted that several local and foreign investors who attended were seeking opportunities in the agribusiness sector and have given favourable feedback.“The conversations were quite good. There were some good leads and persons have expressed that the information they garnered from JIF 2018 has now helped them to make that decision to move ahead with their investment plans. So, we now have to take things to the next level to work with them to ensure that these investments are landed properly and effectively,” Mrs. Porter said.The first Agricultural Information Forum was held in March at the Terra Nova All Suite Hotel in St. Andrew.Coming out of the events, JAMPRO will identify investment projects to package, promote and present to local and overseas investors. Story Highlights The event will be held on July 10 at the Iberostar Beach & Spa Resort in Montego Bay, St. James, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m, and will target persons who have an interest in the agricultural industry. Speaking with JIS News, Manager for Agribusiness at JAMPRO, Marlene Porter, noted that the forum will engage persons operating in the sector, companies that are looking for investment prospects, or persons who have land and capital and are seeking areas in the sector where they can invest. The Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO) will be heading west for the second staging of the Agricultural Information Forum, aimed at promoting investments in that sector.last_img read more

YouTube suspends star over suicide video doesnt shut door

first_imgPASADENA, Calif. – YouTube has suspended a star who posted video images of what appeared to be a suicide victim but said Saturday that doesn’t mean it won’t work with him in the future.The video service announced this week that it had pulled Logan Paul’s channel from its ad-supported Google Preferred platform and put two other projects on hold.YouTube chief business officer Robert Kyncl said Saturday there’s no timetable for when Paul’s future will be addressed again. Kyncl didn’t shut YouTube’s door on Paul.“Everything is evolving so fast,” Kyncl said. “The best thing we can do is put all projects on hold indefinitely, and there’s no date or plan for him in the future.”Paul apologized for posting video of him in a forest near Mount Fuji in Japan near what seemed to be a body hanging from a tree. The location is known in Japan as a frequent site for suicides.YouTube said the images violated its policies. Paul pulled the images from his channel on his own.YouTube was criticized for moving slowly in response, taking nearly two weeks to take action. YouTube said on Twitter this week that critics were right to be frustrated by its initial lack of response.Kyncl said Paul recognizes that he has made serious missteps and has expressed remorse for them.“The most important thing to focus on is that actions speak louder than words and Logan has the opportunity to prove that,” he said.Removing Paul’s work from the Google Preferred platform cuts off a significant route to advertising revenue through YouTube. YouTube also said it would not feature Paul in the fourth season of its series “Foursome” and would put other work on hold. Paul is one of the platform’s biggest stars, with Forbes magazine estimating he earned $12.5 million last year.YouTube said it would soon announce steps to protect advertisers from having their products connected to controversial material.last_img read more

Egypts Morsi from palace to prison

first_imgCairo – Mohammed Morsi, who was catapulted from the underground offices of the Muslim Brotherhood to Egypt’s presidency, faces trial on Monday for the killing of protesters, four months after his dramatic fall from power.Egypt’s first democratically elected president, he has been held incommunicado in military custody since the army overthrew him on 3 July after a stormy one-year rule.Remaining defiant since his incarceration, the deposed leader has rejected the authority of the court to try him, as his supporters insist he is still the legitimate president of the Arab world’s most populous nation. Morsi, along with 14 others, face charges of inciting the murder of protesters during clashes between his supporters and opponents outside the presidential palace in December 2012, in which seven people were killed.The trial comes on the heels of a bloody crackdown by Egypt’s military-installed authorities against Morsi’s Islamist supporters.Hundreds were killed in clashes that erupted when security forces dispersed two pro-Morsi camps in August and at least 2 000 people, including the Muslim Brotherhood’s top leadership, have been rounded up in the clampdown.No stranger to prison, Morsi lived a largely clandestine existence through three decades of authoritarian rule by his ousted predecessor, Hosni Mubarak, when the Brotherhood was officially banned.Crippling economic crisisHe was arrested most recently on 28 January 2011, the day after the Brotherhood threw its weight behind the protests against Mubarak.He was then among dozens of Islamist prisoners sprung from jails around the country during the collapse of public order that accompanied the anti-Mubarak revolution.He had already served seven months in 2006 for taking part in a demonstration in support of reformist judges.Morsi was not the Brotherhood’s first choice for president.He was put forward after one of the movement’s powerful financiers, Khairat al-Shater, was disqualified on technical grounds, earning him the nickname “the spare wheel.”He won the presidential election by a sliver, with many choosing him in a protest vote against former air force chief and Mubarak prime minister Ahmed Shafiq.Morsi, whose predecessors as president have all been generals, failed to maintain Egyptians’ unity following the uprising. Critics accused him of putting too much power in the hands of the Brotherhood.His one-year rule was marred by deep polarisation, insecurity, unrest and a crippling economic crisis.President for all Egyptians In the last public remarks before his ouster he acknowledged “many mistakes” which needed “to be corrected” but insisted he was chosen in a “free and fair election”.His words fell on deaf ears.Millions took to the streets on 30 June in response to a grassroots campaign accusing him of breaking his promise to be a “president for all Egyptians” and of failing the ideals of the 2011 revolution.From a rapturous reception given by adoring crowds in Cairo’s Tahrir Square when he was feted as a revolutionary champion in 2012, Morsi came to be disliked by millions.During his presidency, Morsi was put in an uncomfortable position, with recordings emerging of remarks he had made during his days underground that his critics judged as anti-Semitic.Morsi was born in the village of El-Adwah in the Nile Delta province of Sharqiya in 1951, and had been the spokesperson of the Brotherhood from 2010.He graduated with an engineering degree from Cairo University in 1975 and received a doctorate from the University of Southern California, where he was also an assistant professor in 1982.Married with five children and three grandchildren, Morsi first entered the political arena in 2000 when he was elected to parliament as an independent, given the Mubarak-era ban on the Brotherhood.last_img read more